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Effects of Human and Nonhuman Predation Risk on Antipredator Movement Behaviors of an Upland Game Bird

We compared the influence of predation risk from hunters versus coyotes on behaviors of toms.  We found that coyotes and toms had tons of overlap in their home ranges, but not in core areas where they spent most of their time.  We also found that toms avoided habitats coyotes preferred, but after interacting with a coyote, toms went about their business as normal.  However, after interacting with hunters, toms picked up the pace and moved more, suggestive of fleeing behavior.  Our findings suggest that how toms respond to hunters is more dramatic than their responses to natural predators such as coyotes. 

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